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4-30-24 Congratulations Drs. Tiffany Bellomo and Pradeep Natarajan on your new study in JACC Journals Clonal Hematopoiesis Among Patients with Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Compounds Risk of Cardiovascular Death.

4-2-24 Dr. Roger Zou led a group of Natarajan Lab scientists in publishing this article. Polygenic Scores and Preclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Individuals with HIV: Insights From the REPRIEVE Trial Congratulations!

4-2-24 Congrats Drs. Zhi Yu and Mesbah Uddin on your Nature Review Genetics publication! Genetic variation across and within individuals

2-15-24 Congrats Dr. Aeron Small on your recent publication in JAMA Cardiology. Lipoprotein(a), C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk in Primary and Secondary Prevention Populations.

1-17-24 Welcome 2024! Congrats Dr. Romit Bhattacharya! Risk Factors for Clonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential in People with HIV: a report from the REPRIEVE Trial. in Blood Advances.

12-22-23 Congrats @artschuermans, @APournamdari & @mchonig on their latest work. Integrative proteomic analyses across common cardiac diseases yield new mechanistic insights and enhanced prediction in medRxiv.

12-12-23 Delighted to share our study by Dr. Jemma Cho, Cumulative Diastolic Blood Pressure Burden in Normal Systolic Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease published in Hypertension.

12-11-23 Congratulations Dr. Aniruddh Patel for receiving an K08 NOA!

11-14-23 Drs. Tet Nakao and Pradeep Natarajan published a letter in the New England Journal of Medicine Familial Clonal Hematopoiesis in a Long Telomere Syndrome

11-14-23 Drs. Akl Fahed and Pradeep Natarajan recently published in Atherosclerosis Clinical applications of polygenic risk score for coronary artery disease through the life course. 

10-31-23 Flagship MGB Biobank paper by Dr. Satoshi Koyama is up as a preprint! Decoding Genetics, Ancestry, and Geospatial Context for Precision Health.

10-20-23 Congratulation Dr. Zhi Yu for being named a Stat Wunderkid

10-13-23 A recent collaboration with Dr. Lauren Reescamp and the Natarajan Lab led to this publication: Concordance of a High Lipoprotein(a) Concentration Among Relatives.

10-11-23 A big congratulations to Yuxuan Wang et al for the recent medRxiv preprint. Rare variants in long non-coding RNAs are associated with blood lipid levels in the TOPMed Whole Genome Sequencing Study.

9-29-23 Congratulations Dr. Sarah Urbut and the rest of the lab! Published in iScience  Bayesian multivariate genetic analysis improves translational insights.

9-15-23 Congratulations to Dr. Zhi Yu on her K99 NOA!

9-15-23 Jiwoo Lee, one of our medical students, just published in Nature Communications. Quantifying the causal impact of biological risk factors on healthcare costs.

8-28-23 Congratulations, Dr. Jemma So Mi Cho and Nina Kathiresan! Published in JAMA Cardiology. Representation of Race and Ethnicity in the Contemporary US Health Cohort All of US Research Program.

8-2-23 Dr. Zhi Yu is on fire! She published this work Genetic modification of inflammation and clonal hematopoiesis- associated cardiovascular risk in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. Her preprint Human Plasma Proteomic Profile of Clonal Hematopoiesis is also up.

7-27-23 Congrats Art Schuermans et al. for your publication in Circulation Research. Age at Menopause, Leukocyte Telomere Length, and Coronary Artery Disease in Postmenopausal Women.

7-7-23 Amazing work Aniruddh Patel! Published in Nature Medicine A multi-ancestry polygenic risk score improves risk prediction for coronary artery disease.

6-27-23 The Natarajan folks have been busy. Art Schuermans, Sara Haidermota, and Drs Tet Nakao, Yunfeng Ruan, Satoshi Koyama, Zhi Yu, Mesbah Uddin, Whitney Hornsby, Pradeep Natarajan, and Mike Honigberg all contributed to this Nature Genetics paper Birth Weight Is Associated With Clonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Adulthood.

6-27-23 Jemma So Mi Cho along with a few other lab folks recently published Genetic, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors of recurrent coronary artery disease events: a population-based cohort study.

6-16-23 Drs. Derek Klarin, Kaavya Paruchuri, Krishna Aragam, Ida Surakka, and Pradeep Natarajan all contributed to this Nature Genetics paper Genome-wide association study of thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection in the Million Veteran Program.

5-17-23 A Nature publication published in April. Clonal haematopoiesis and risk of chronic liver disease.

4-26-23 A truly joint lab effort Genetic and Clinical Factors Underlying a Self-Reported Family History of Heart Disease.

3-17-23 Our latest publication Multiancestry Genome-Wide Association Study of Aortic Stenosis Identifies Multiple Novel Loci in the Million Veteran Program.

12-9-22 Just published Clonal Hematopoiesis and Risk of Incident Lung Cancer.

11-11-22 A couple more publications to end this week. 2022 Jeffrey M. Hoeg Award Lecture: Genomic Aging, Clonal Hematopoiesis, and Cardiovascular Disease and Venous Thromboembolism Polygenic Risk Score Associates With Pulmonary Hypertension in the UK Biobank.

11-08-22 This week, Drs. Tetsushi Nakao and Pradeep Natarajan published Clonal hematopoiesis, multi-comics and coronary artery disease in Nature Cardiovascular Research.

11-08-22 Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine just published Association of a Multi-Ancestry Genome-Wide Blood Pressure Polygenic Risk Score with Adverse Cardiovascular Events

11-04-22 Our latest publication in Blood Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential and risk of death from COVID-19

10-19-22 A new publication for the Natarajan Lab, Clonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential and Kidney Function Decline in the General Population.

10-13-22 Just published in Nature Communications Whole genome sequence analysis of blood lipid levels in >66,000 individuals.

09-30-22 Ending off September with two publications Measured Blood Pressure, Genetically Predicted Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the UK Biobank and Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Relation to Lipoprotein(a) Genotypes.

09-20-22 Considering a career as a physician-scientist? Here’s a timely publication: Launching a career as a physician-scientist.

09-20-22 Just published in Science Translational Medicine Cold shock domain-containing protein E1 is a posttranscriptional regulator of the LDL receptor.

09-13-22 Congratulations Mesbah Uddin and the Natarajan Lab for their recently published paper, Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential, DNA methylation, and risk for coronary artery disease

08-30-22 The latest paper to close out August, Lipoprotein(a) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and aortic stenosis: a European Atherosclerosis Society consensus statement.

08-23-22 The Natarajan Lab recently published Proteomic profiling platforms head to head: Leveraging genetics and clinical traits to compare aptamer- and antibody-based methods and Whole Genome Association Study of the Plasma Metabolome Identifies Metabolites Linked to Cardiometabolic Disease in Black Individuals.

08-18-22 For the long days of summer, here is some light reading. Clinical Implementation of Combined Monogenic and Polygenic Risk Disclosure for Coronary Artery Disease.

08-10-22 Newsweek just announced that Massachusetts General Hospital has been chosen as the #1 hospital in the world for cardiology. Honored to work alongside this amazing group of colleagues!

08-10-22 Welcome to our two latest lab members. Ida Surakka an affiliated faculty member and Tajmara Antoine a clinical research coordinator.

08-08-22 For the hot days of August! A multi-layer functional genomic analysis to understand noncoding genetic variation in lipids.

08-02-22 More summer reading! Large-scale genome-wide association study of coronary artery disease in genetically diverse populations and Germline genomic and phenomic landscape of clonal hematopoiesis in 323,112 individuals.

07-21-22 A summer publication to add to your reading list! Association of Pathogenic DNA Variants Predisposing to Cardiomyopathy With Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes and All-Cause Mortality

07-01-22 To start out the second half of the year, the lab published this article:  A MUC5B Gene Polymorphism, rs35705950-T Confers Protective Effects Against COVID-19 Hospitalization but not Severe Disease or Mortality

06-29-22 Two new articles published this month. TET2-mutant clonal hematopoiesis and risk of gout and the Association of Kidney Comorbidities and Acute Kidney Failure With Unfavorable Outcomes After COVID-19 in Individuals With the Sickle Cell Trait.

06-16-22 Nature Genetics published the Natarajan Lab’s most recent work, Genetic analysis of right heart structure and function in 40,000 people.

06-13-22 Welcome to Shriie Ganesh. She joined our incredibly talented group of clinical research coordinators.

06-03-22 Two publications to note from the past couple of weeks. Genetic Architecture and Clinical Outcomes of the Fredrickson-Levy-Lees Dyslipoproteinemias and Sex Differences in Temporal Trends of Cardiovascular Health in Young US Adults.

05-24-22 On May 14th the American Heart Association Vascular Discovery Scientific Sessions held in Seattle awarded Dr. Pradeep Natarajan with the Jeffrey M. Hoeg Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology Award. Congratulations Pradeep!

05-12-22 A mid-May publication. Association of Pathogenic DNA Variants Predisposing to Cardiomyopathy With Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes and All-Cause Mortality.

05-05-22 Read a few of the papers published during April and May. “Genetics of smoking and risk of clonal hematopoiesis“, “Lipoprotein(a), menopausal hormone therapy, and risk of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women“, “Mendelian randomization supports bidirectional causality between telomere length and clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential“, and “Genetic association of body mass index with pathologic left ventricular remodeling“.

4-25-22 Our new Associate Director, Whitney Hornsby, joined the Natarajan Lab today!

03-14-22 Another week of publications for the Natarajan Lab. “Genetic and phenotypic profiling of supranormal ejection fraction reveals decreased survival and underdiagnosed heart failure” and “Practical, Evidence-Based Approaches to Nutritional Modifications to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: An American Society For Preventive Cardiology Clinical Practice Statement“.

03-08-22 Congratulations Maryam Zekavat for defending her PhD and for the publication of her most recent work. “Fibrillar Collagen Variants in Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection“.

03-07-22 Yet more papers published “Practical, Evidence-Based Approaches to Nutritional Modifications to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: An American Society for Preventive Cardiology Clinical Practice Statement.” and “Genetic and clinical determinants of abdominal aortic diameter: genome-wide association studies, exome array data and Mendelian randomization study“.

2-28-22 The next paper out from the Natarajan Lab is “Diastolic Blood Pressure Alleles Improve Congenital Heart Defect Repair Outcomes.”

2-18-22 A slew of papers have been published over the last month in the Natarajan Lab. Here are a few of them. Michael Honigberg presented his latest research in “Microvascular Outcomes in Women With a History of Hypertension in Pregnancy“. Mark Trinder published his work titled “Repeat Measures of Lipoprotein(a) Molar Concentration and Cardiovascular Risk“. Base on her most recent studies, Leland Hull published her piece “Self-rated family health history knowledge among All of Us program participants“. Watch here for more publications!

1-13-22 More welcomes are in order as the Natarajan lab continues to grow. Welcome to Yunfeng Ruan, Buu Troung, Michael Pang, Nishant Uppal.

11-24-21 Welcome to Jacqueline Dron, Akl Fahed, and Aniruddh Patel!

11-8-21 Congratulations to the Natarajan Lab including Maryam Zekevat, Vineet Raghu, Mark Trinder, Satoshi Koyama, Mike Honigberg, Zhi Yu, Sarah Urbut, Sara Haidermota, and Pradeep Natarajan for publishing Deep Learning of the Retina Enables Phenome- and Genome-wide Analyses of the Microvasculature .

10-18-21 Despite being in her first year as a Cardiology Fellow, Dr. Sarah Urbut came in 2nd place in the Fellows Basic Science Category at the Northwestern Cardiovascular Young Investigators’ Forum. Congratulations Dr. Urbut!

9-28-21 Newsweek published their list of the world’s Best Specialized Hospitals 2022 – Cardiology. At the top, you will find the Massachusetts General Hospital Corrigan Minehan Heart Center! Congratulations to all who make this a world-class center.


Clinical Training

[updated 02/26/2021]

Here are a select set of high yield resources to review during the Massachusetts General Hospital Cardiology Fellowship and Medicine Residency rotation in Prevention & Genetics. feedback

Review / Statement / Guideline / Editorial Papers

Preventive Cardiology

Cardiovascular Genetics

Aortopathy Genetics

Arrhythmia Genetics

Atherosclerosis Genetics

Women’s Heart Health

Online Calculators

Preventive Cardiology

Atherosclerosis Genetics


 Review / Statement / Guideline / Editorial Papers 


2018 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol

2019 ACC/AHA Primary Prevention Guidelines

2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidemias: Lipid Modification to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk

2020 American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes: Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Management

2020 ACC Consensus Decision Pathway on Novel Therapies for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Pathways with Type 2 Diabetes and ASCVD

Practical Guide to Prescribing SGLT2 Inhibitors

Practical Guide to Prescribing GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

Inflammation, C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Disease.

Dalal HM, Doherty P, Taylor RS. Cardiac rehabilitation. BMJ. 2015 Sep 29;351:h5000. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h5000. Review. PubMed PMID: 26419744; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4586722.

Tsimikas S. A Test in Context: Lipoprotein(a): Diagnosis, Prognosis, Controversies, and Emerging Therapies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Feb 14;69(6):692-711. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.11.042. PMID: 28183512.

Nabel EG, Braunwald E. A tale of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 5;366(1):54-63. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1112570. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2012 Mar 8;366(10):970. PubMed PMID: 22216842.

Grayburn PA. Interpreting the coronary-artery calcium score. N Engl J Med. 2012 Jan 26;366(4):294-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp1110647. PubMed PMID: 22276819.

Ridker PM. Inflammation, C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular disease: moving past the marker versus mediator debate. Circ Res. 2014 Feb 14;114(4):594-5. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.303215. PubMed PMID: 24526672.

Witztum JL, Ginsberg HN. Lipoprotein (a): Coming of Age at Last. J Lipid Res. 2016 Mar;57(3):336-9. doi: 10.1194/jlr.E066985. Epub 2016 Feb 2. Review. PubMed PMID: 26839334; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4766984.

Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, Cushman M, Das SR, Deo R, de Ferranti SD, Floyd J, Fornage M, Gillespie C, Isasi CR, Jiménez MC, Jordan LC, Judd SE, Lackland D, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth L, Liu S, Longenecker CT, Mackey RH, Matsushita K, Mozaffarian D, Mussolino ME, Nasir K, Neumar RW, Palaniappan L, Pandey DK, Thiagarajan RR, Reeves MJ, Ritchey M, Rodriguez CJ, Roth GA, Rosamond WD, Sasson C, Towfighi A, Tsao CW, Turner MB, Virani SS, Voeks JH, Willey JZ, Wilkins JT, Wu JH, Alger HM, Wong SS, Muntner P; American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017 Mar 7;135(10):e146-e603. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000485. Epub 2017 Jan 25. Review. Erratum in: Circulation. 2017 Mar 7;135(10 ):e646. Circulation. 2017 Sep 5;136(10):e196. PubMed PMID: 28122885; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5408160.

Collins R, Reith C, Emberson J, Armitage J, Baigent C, Blackwell L, Blumenthal R, Danesh J, Smith GD, DeMets D, Evans S, Law M, MacMahon S, Martin S, Neal B, Poulter N, Preiss D, Ridker P, Roberts I, Rodgers A, Sandercock P, Schulz K, Sever P, Simes J, Smeeth L, Wald N, Yusuf S, Peto R. Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy. Lancet. 2016 Nov 19;388(10059):2532-2561. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31357-5. Epub 2016 Sep 8. Review. Erratum in: Lancet. 2017 Feb 11;389(10069):602. PubMed PMID: 27616593.


Cirino AL, Harris S, Lakdawala NK, Michels M, Olivotto I, Day SM, Abrams DJ, Charron P, Caleshu C, Semsarian C, Ingles J, Rakowski H, Judge DP, Ho CY. Role of Genetic Testing in Inherited Cardiovascular Disease: A Review. JAMA Cardiol. 2017 Oct 1;2(10):1153-1160. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2017.2352. PubMed PMID: 28793145.


Aortopathy Genetics top

Coming soon


Arrhythmia Genetics top

2011 HRS/EHRA Channelopathy / Cardiomyopathy genetic testing Expert Consensus Statement


Atherosclerosis Genetics top

2015 AHA Familial Hypercholesterolemia Scientific Statement

Scheuner MT. Genetic evaluation for coronary artery disease. Genet Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;5(4):269-85. Review. PubMed PMID: 12865756.

Hovingh GK, Davidson MH, Kastelein JJ, O’Connor AM. Diagnosis and treatment of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Eur Heart J. 2013 Apr;34(13):962-71. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/eht015. Epub 2013 Feb 14. Review. PubMed PMID: 23416791.

Stitziel NO, MacRae CA. A clinical approach to inherited premature coronary artery disease. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2014 Aug;7(4):558-64. doi: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.113.000152. PubMed PMID: 25140063; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4403638.

Sturm AC, Knowles JW, Gidding SS, Ahmad ZS, Ahmed CD, Ballantyne CM, Baum SJ, Bourbon M, Carrié A, Cuchel M, de Ferranti SD, Defesche JC, Freiberger T, Hershberger RE, Hovingh GK, Karayan L, Kastelein JJP, Kindt I, Lane SR, Leigh SE, Linton MF, Mata P, Neal WA, Nordestgaard BG, Santos RD, Harada-Shiba M, Sijbrands EJ, Stitziel NO, Yamashita S, Wilemon KA, Ledbetter DH, Rader DJ; Convened by the Familial Hypercholesterolemia Foundation. Clinical Genetic Testing for Familial Hypercholesterolemia: JACC Scientific Expert Panel. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Aug 7;72(6):662-680. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.05.044. Review. PubMed PMID: 30071997.


Cardiomyopathy Genetics top

2009 HFSA Cardiomyopathy genetic testing Practice Guidelines

2011 HRS/EHRA Channelopathy / Cardiomyopathy genetic testing Expert Consensus Statement

2011 ACCF/AHA Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Guidelines

2014 ESC Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Guidelines


Women’s Heart Health top

2018 ESC Guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy

EUGenMed Cardiovascular Clinical Study Group, Regitz-Zagrosek V, Oertelt-Prigione S, Prescott E, Franconi F, Gerdts E, Foryst-Ludwig A, Maas AH, Kautzky-Willer A, Knappe-Wegner D, Kintscher U, Ladwig KH, Schenck-Gustafsson K, Stangl V. Gender in cardiovascular diseases: impact on clinical manifestations, management, and outcomes. Eur Heart J. 2016 Jan 1;37(1):24-34. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv598. Epub 2015 Nov 3. PMID: 26530104.

Lundberg G, Wu P, Wenger N. Menopausal Hormone Therapy: a Comprehensive Review. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2020 Jun 18;22(8):33. doi: 10.1007/s11883-020-00854-8. PMID: 32556827.

Sliwa K, van der Meer P, Petrie MC, Frogoudaki A, Johnson MR, Hilfiker-Kleiner D, Hamdan R, Jackson AM, Ibrahim B, Mbakwem A, Tschöpe C, Regitz-Zagrosek V, Omerovic E, Roos-Hesselink J, Gatzoulis M, Tutarel O, Price S, Heymans S, Coats AJ, Müller C, Chioncel O, Thum T, Thum T, de Boer RA, Jankowska E, Ponikowski P, Lyon AR, Rosano G, Seferovic PM, Bauersachs J. Risk stratification and management of women with cardiomyopathy/heart failure planning pregnancy or presenting during/after pregnancy: a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology Study Group on Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail. 2021 Feb 20. doi: 10.1002/ejhf.2133. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33609068.


 Online calculators 



Preventive Cardiology 


ACC/AHA ASCVD Risk Estimator +: 10-year ASCVD risk estimation

ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations: 10-year ASCVD risk estimation

Reynold’s Risk Score: 10-year ASCVD risk estimation for non-diabetics (includes family history and hsCRP)

MESA CAC Calculator: 10-year CAD risk estimation (includes CAC)

MESA CAC Reference Values: Expected CAC score given age, sex, and ethnicity.


Atherosclerosis Genetics 


Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria: FH clinical diagnostic criteria

Simone Broome criteria: FH clinical diagnostic criteria

MEDPED criteria: FH clinical diagnostic criteria

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